6.1.1 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf einen ischämischen Infarkt:

Ferro JM, Melo TP, Oliveira V, Salgado AV, Crespo M, Canh.

A multivariate study of headache associated with ischemic stroke. Headache 1995; 35: 315-319.

Fisher CM.

Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. In : Vinken PH, Bruyn GW eds. Headache and cranial neuralgias. Handbook of clinical neurology. Amsterdam; Elsevier 1968; 5: 124-156.

Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, Langenberg D.

Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 1986; 36: 1445-1450.

Portenoy RK, Abissi CJ, Lipton RB, Berger AR, Mebler MF, Baglivo J, Solomon S.

Headache in cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1984; 15: 1009-1012.

6.1.2 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine transitorische ischämische Attacke

Caplan LR.

Migraine and vertebrobasilar ischemia. Neurology 1991; 41: 55-61.

Ferro JM, Costa I, Melo TP, Canhao P, Oliveira V, Salgado AV, Crespo M, Pinto AN.

Headache associated with transient ischemic attacks. Headache 1995; 35: 544-548.

Fisher CM.

Migraine accompaniments versus arteriosclerotic ischemia. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1968; 93: 211-213.

Fisher CM.

Cerebral ischemia: less familiar types. Clin Neurosurg 1971; 18: 267-336.

Fisher CM.

Late-life migraine accompaniements as a cause of unexplained transient ischemic attacks. Can J Med Sci 1980; 7: 9-17.

Martsen BH, Sorensen PS, Marquardsen J.

Transient ischemic attacks in young patients: a thromboembolic or migrainous manifestation? A ten-year follow-up of 46 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1990; 53: 1029-1033.

6.2.1 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine intrazerebrale Blutung

Ferro JM, Melo TP, Guerreiro M.

Headaches in intracerebral hemorrhage survivors. Neurology 1998; 50: 203-207.

Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, Langenberg P.

Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 1986; 36: 1445-1450.

Jensen TS, Gorrelick PB.

Headache associated with stroke and intracranial hematoma. In: The Headaches. 2nd edition.J. Olesen, P. Telt-Hansen, KMA Welch eds. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2000, 781-787.

Melo TP, Pinto AN, Ferro JM.

Headache in intracerebral hematomas. Neurology 1996; 47: 494-500.

Schuaib A, Metz L, and Hing T.

Migraine and intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Cephalalgia 1989; 9: 59-61.

6.2.2 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine subarachnoidale Blutung

Bassi P, Bandera R Loiero M, Togoni G, Mangoni.

Warning signs in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative tudy. Acta Neurol Scand 1991; 84: 277-281.

Edlow JA, Caplan LR.

Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. NEJM 2000; 342: 29-36.

Evans RW.

Diagnostic testing for the evaluation of headaches. Neurology Clinics 1996; 14: 1-26.

Linn FHH, Rinkel GJE, Algra A, van Gijn J.

Headache characteristics in subarachnoid haemorrhage and benign thunderclap headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1998; 65: 791-793.

Mayberg MR, Batjer HH, Dacey R, Diringer M, Haley EC, Heros RC, Sternau LL, Torner J, Adams HP, Feinberg W, Thies W.

Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke 1994; 25: 2315-2328.

Ramirez-Lassepas M, Espinosa CE, Cicero JJ, Johnston KL, Cipolle RJ, Barber DL.

Predictors of intracranial pathologic findings in patients who seek emergency care because of headache. Arch Neurol 1997; 54: 1506-1509.

Seymour JJ, Moscati RM, Jehle DV.

Response of headaches to non-narcotic analgesics resulting in missed intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13: 43-45.

Sidman R, Vconnolly E, Lemke T.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosis : lumbar puncture is still needed when the computed tomography scan is normal. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3: 827-831.

Van der Wee N, Rinkel GJE, Hasan D, van Gijn J.

Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage on early CT: is lumbar puncture still needed after a negative scan? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1995; 58: 357-359.

Verweij RD, Wijdicks EFM, van Gijn J.

Warning headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A case control study. Arch Neurol 1988; 45: 1019-1020.

Weir B.

Diagnostic aspects of SAH. In: Weir B. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: causes and cures. New York: Oxford University Press 1998, 144-176.

6.3.1 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf ein sackförmiges Aneurysma

Day JW, Raskin NH.

Thunderclap headache: symptom of unruptured cerebral aneurysm. Lancet 1986; 2: 1247-1248.

Linn FHH, Wijdicks EFM, van der Graaf Y, Weerdesteyn-van Vliet FAC, Bartelds A, van Gijn J.

Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 1994; 344: 590-593.

Markus HS.

A prospective follow-up of thunderclap headache mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage. J. Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1991; 54: 1117-1125.

Mas JL, Baron JC, Bousser MG, Chiras J.

Stroke, migraine and inracranial aneurysm: a case report. Stroke 1986; 17: 1019-1021.

Ostergard JR, Ramadan N.

Unruptured vascular malformations and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In The Headaches 2nd edition. J Olesen, P Tfelt-Hansen, KMA Welch eds. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams and Wilkins 2000: 789-796.

Raps EC, Rogers JD, Galetta DL, Solomon RA, Lennihan L, Klebanoff LM, Fink ME.

DThe clinical spectrum of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Arch Neurol 1993; 50: 265-268.

Schievink WI.

Intracranial aneurysms. NEJM 1997; 336: 28-40.

Wijdicks EFM, Kerkhoff H, van Gijn J.

Long-term follow-up of 71 patients with thunderclap headache mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 1988; 2: 68-70.

6.3.2 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine arterio-venöse Malformation

Bruyn GW.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformation and migraine. Cephalalgia 1984; 4: 191-207.

Haas DC.

Arteriovenous malformations and migraine : case reports and an analysis of the relationship. Headache 1991; 31: 509-513.

Troost BT, Mark LE, Maroon JC.

Resolution of classic migraine after removal of an occipital lobe AVM. Ann Neurol 1979; 5: 199-201.

6.3.3 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine durale arterio-venöse Fistel

Malek AM, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT.

Diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1998; 8: 445-468.

6.3.4 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf ein kavernöses Angiom

De Benedittis G.

SUNCT syndrome associated with cavernous angioma of the brain stem. Cephalalgia 1996; 16: 503-506.

Epstein MA, Beerman PH, Schut L.

Cavernous angioma presenting as atypical facial and head pain. J Child Neurol 1990; 5: 27-30.

Robinson JR, Awad IA, Little JR.

Natural history of the cavernous angioma. J Neurosurg 1991; 75: 709-714.

6.3.5 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine Enzephalo-trigeminale Angiomatose (Sturge-Weber-Syndrom)

Chabriat H, Pappata S, Traykov L, Kurtz A, Bousser MG.

Angiomatose de Sturge Weber responsable d?une hémiplégie sans infarctus cérébral en fin de grossesse. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1996; 152: 536-541.

Klapper J.

Headache in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Headache 1994; 34: 521-522.

6.4.1 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine Riesenzellarteriitis

Caselli RJ, Hunder GG.

Neurologic aspects of giant cell (temporal) arteritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1993; 19: 941-953.

Hunder GG.

Giant cell (temporal) arteritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990; 16: 399-409.

Lee AG, Brazis PW.

Temporal arteritis : a clinical approach. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1364-1370.

Solomon S, Cappa KG.

The headache of temporal arteritis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987; 35: 163-165.

Swannell AJ.

Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis : diagnosis and management. BMJ 1997; 314: 1329-1332.

Thielen KR, Wydicks EFM, Nichols DA.

Giant cell (temporal) arteritis: involvement of the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73: 444-446.

6.4.2 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine primäre Vaskulitis des ZNS und 6.4.3 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine sekundäre Vaskulitis des ZNS

Calabrese LH, Furlan AH, Gragg LA, Ropos TH.

Primary angiitis of the central nervous system : diagnostic criteria and clinical approach. Cleve J Med 1992: 59: 293-306.

Calabrese LH, Duna GF, Lie JT.

Vasculitis in the central nervous system ; Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1189-1201.

Chu CT, Gray L, Goldstein LB, Hulette CM.

Diagnosis of intracranial vasculitis: a multidisciplinary approach. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 1998; 57: 30-38.

Hankey GJ.

Necrotizing and granulomatous angiitis of the CNS. In Cerebrovascular disease. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, vol 2. MD Ginsberg, J Bogousslavsky eds. New York: Blackwell Science 1998: 1647-1683.

Harris KG, Tran DD, Sickels WJ, Cornell SH, Yuh WTC.

Diagnosing intracranial vasculitis: the roles or MR and angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 1994; 15: 317-330.

Kumar R, Wijdicks EFM, Brown RD, Parisi JE, Hammond CA.

Isolated angiitis of the CNS presenting as subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1997; 62: 649-651.

Lie JT.

Primary (granulomatous) angiitis of the central nervous system : a clinicopathologic analysis of 15 new cases and a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 1992; 23: 164-171.

Moore PM.

Vasculitis of the central nervous system. Semin Neurol 1994; 14: 313-319.

Savage COS, Harper L, Cockwell P, Adu D, Howie AJ.

ABC of arterial and vascular disease: vasculitis. BMJ 2000; 320: 1325-1328.

6.5.1 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine arterielle Dissektion

Biousse V, D?Anglejan-Chatillon J, Massiou H, Bousser MG.

Head pain in non traumatic artery dissection: a series of 65 patients. Cephalalgia 1994; 14: 33-36.

Biousse V, D?Anglejan-Chatillon J, Touboul PJ, Amarenco P, Bousser MG.

Time course of symptoms in extracranial carotid artery dissections. A series of 80 patients. Stroke 1995; 26: 235-239.

Biousse V, Woimant F, Amarenco P, Touboul PJ, Bousser MG.

Pain as the only manifes-tation of extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Cephalalgia 1992; 12: 314-317.

D?Anglejan Chatillon J, Ribeiro V, Mas JL, Youl BD, Bousser MG.

Migraine - a risk factor for dissection of cervical arteries. Headache 1989; 29: 560-561.

De la Sayette V, Leproux F, Letellier Ph.

Cervical cord and dorsal medullary infarction presenting with retro-orbital pain. Neurology 1999; 53: 632-634.

Duyff RF, Snidjers CJ, Vanneste JAL.

Spontaneous bilateral internal carotid artery dissection and migraine : a potential diagnostic delay. Headache 1997; 37: 109-112.

Fisher CM.

The headache and pain of spontaneous carotid dissection. Headache 1982; 22: 60-65.

Guillon B, Biousse V, Massiou H, Bousser MG.

Orbital pain as an isolated sign of internal carotid artery dissection. A diagnostic pitfall. Cephalagia 1998, 18: 222-224.

Guillon B, Lévy C, Bousser MG.

Internal carotid artery dissection: an update. J Neurol Sci 1998; 153: 146-158.

Nakatomi H, Nagata K, Kawamoto S, Shiokawa Y.

Ruptured dissecting aneurysm as a cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage of unverified etiology. Stroke 1997; 28: 1278-1282.

Ramadan NM, Tietjen GE, Levine SR, Welch KMA.

Scintillating scotomata associated with internal carotid artery dissection: report of three cases. Neurology 1991; 41: 1084-1087.

Silbert PL, Mokri B, Schievink WI.

Headache and neck pain in spontaneous internal carotid and verterbral artery dissections. Neurology 1995; 45: 1517-1522.

Sturzenegger M.

Headache and neck pain. The warning symptoms of vertebral artery dissection. Headache 1994; 34: 187-193.

6.5.2 Kopfschmerz nach Endarteriektomie

Breen JC, Caplan LR, DeWitt LD, Belkin M, Mackey WC, Donnell TP.

Brain edema after carotid surgery. Neurology 1996; 46: 175-181.

De Marinis M, Zaccaria A, Faraglia V, Fiorani P, Maira G, Agnoli A.

Post endarterectomy headache and the role of the oculo-sympathetic system. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1991; 54: 314-317.

Ille O, Woimant F, Pruna A, Corabianu O, Idatte JM, Haguenau M.

Hypertensive encephalopathy after bilateral carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 1995; 26: 488-491.

Leviton A, Caplan L, Salzman E.

Severe headache after carotid endarterectomy. Headache 1975; 15: 207-209.

Tehindrazanarivelo A, Lutz G, Petitjean C, Bousser MG.

Headache following carotid endarterectomy: a prospective study. Cephalalgia 1991; 11(suppl 11): 353.

6.5.3 Kopfschmerz nach Angioplastie der A. carotis

Dietrich EB, Ndiaye M, Reid DB.

Stenting in the carotid artery. Experience in 110 patients. J Endovasc Surg 1996; 3: 42-62.

Gil-Peralta A, Mayol A, Gonzalez Marcos JR, Gonzalez A, Ruano J, Boza F, Duran F.

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid arteries; Results, complications and follow-up. Stroke 1996; 27: 2271-2273.

McCabe DJH, Brown MM, Clifton A.

Fatal cerebral reperfusion hemorrhage after carotid stenting. Stroke 1999; 30: 2483-2486.

Munari LM, Belloni G, Moschini L, Mauro A, Pezzuoli G, Porta M.

Carotid pain during percutaneous angioplasty. Pathophysiology and clinical features. Cephalalgia 1994; 14: 127-131.

Schoser BG, Heesen C, Eckert B, Thie A.

Cerebral hyperperfusion injury after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of extracranial arteries. J Neurol 1997; 244: 101-104.

6.5.4 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine intrakraniale endovaskuläre Intervention

Martins IP, Baeta E, Paiva T, Campos J, Gomes L.

Headaches during intracranial endovascular procedures: a possible model for vascular headache. Headache 1993; 23: 227-233.

Nichols FT, Mawad M, Mohr JP, Hilal S, Adams RJ.

Focal headache during balloon inflation in the vertebral and basilar arteries. Headache 1993; 33: 87-89.

Nichols FT, Mawad M, Mohr JP, Stein B, Hilal S, Michelsen WJ.

Focal headache during balloon inflation in the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries. Stroke 1990; 21: 555-559.

6.5.5 Kopfschmerz bei Angiographie

Shuaib A, Hachinski VC.

Migraine and the risks from angiogaphy. Arch Neurol 1988; 45: 911-912.

6.6 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine Hirnvenenthrombose

Aidi S, Chaunu MP, Biousse V, Bousser MG.

Changing pattern of headache pointing to cerebral venous thrombosis after lumbar puncture and intra venous high dose cortico-steroids. Headache 1999; 39: 559-564.

Ameri A, Bousser MG.

Cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurologic Clinics 1992; 10: 87-111.

Biousse V, Ameri A, Bousser MG.

Isolated intracranial hypertension as the only sign of cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurology 1999; 53: 1537-1542.

Bousser MG, Ross Russell R.

Cerebral venous thrombosis. Major problems in neurology, vol 1. London: Saunders 1997.

Crassard I, Biousse V, Bousser MG, Meyer B, Marsot-Dupuch K.

Hearing loss and headache revealing lateral sinus thrombosis in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation. Stroke 1997; 28: 876-877.

De Bruijn SFTM, Stam J, Kappelle LJ for CVST study group.

Thunderclap headache as first symptom of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Lancet 1996; 348: 1623-1625.

Leker RR, Steiner I.

Features of dural sinus thrombosis simulating pseudotumor cerebri. Eur J Neurol 1999; 6: 601-604.

Newman DS, Levine SR, Curtis VL, Welch KMA :

Migraine like visual phenomena associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Headache 1989; 29: 82-85.

Tehindrazanarivelo AD, Evrard S, Schaison M, Mas JL, Dormont D, Bousser MG:

Prospective study of cereral sinus venous thrombosis in patients presenting with benign intracranial hypertension. Cerebrovasc Dis 1992; 2: 22-27.


Chabriat H, Tournier-Lasserve E, Vahedi K, Leys D, Joutel A, Nibbio A, Escailla JP, Iba-Zizen MT, Bracard S, Tehindrazanarivelo A, Gastaut JL, Bousser MG.

Autosomal dominant migraine with MRI white matter abnormalities mapping to the CADASIL locus. Neurology 1995; 45: 1086-1091.

Chabriat H, Vahedi K, Iba-Zizen MT, Joutel A, Nibbio A, Nagy TG, Krebs MO, Julien J, Dubois B, Ducrocq X, Levasseur M, Homeyer P, Mas JL, Lyon-Caen O, Tournier-Lasserve E, Bousser MG.

Clinical spectrum of CADASIL: a study of 7 families. Lancet 1995; 346: 934-939.

Joutel A, Corpechot C, Ducros A, Katayoun V, Chabriat H, Mouton P, Alamowitch S, Domenga V, Cécillion M, Maréchal E, Maciazek J, Vayssière C, Cruaud C, Cabanis EA, Ruchoux MM, Weissenbach J, Bacxh JF, Bousser MG, Tournier-Lasserve E.

"Notch 3" mutations in CADASIL, a hereditary adult-onset condition causing stroke and dementia. Nature 1996; 383: 707-710.

Verin M, Rolland Y, Landgraf F Chabriat H, Bompais B, Michel A, Vahedi K, Martinet JP, Tournier-Lasserve E, Lemaitre MH, Edan G.

New phenotype of the cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19 migraine as the prominent clinical feature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1995; 59: 579-585.

6.7.2 MELAS

Klopstock A, May P, Siebel E, Papagiannuli E, Diener HC, Reichmann H.

Mitochondrial DNA in migraine with aura. Neurology 1996; 46: 1735-1738.

Koo B, Becker L, Chuang S, Merante F, Robinson BH, Mac Gregor D, Tein I, Ho VB, McGreal DA, Wherrett JR, Logan WJ.

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes (MELAS): clinical, radiological, pathological and genetic observations. Ann Neurol 1993; 34: 25-32.

Ojaimi J, Katsabanis S, Bower S, Quigley A, Byrne E.

Mitochondrial DNA in stroke and migraine with aura. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998; 8: 102-106.

Pavlakis SG, Phillips PC, Di Mauro S, De Vivo DC, Rowland P.

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes: a distinct clinical syndrome. Ann Neurol 1984; 16: 481-488.

6.7.3 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf eine benigne Angiopathie des ZNS

Call GK, Fleming MC, Sealfon S, Levine H, Kistler JP, Fisher CM.

Reversible cerebral segmental vasoconstriction. Stroke 1988; 19: 1159-1170.

Dodick DW, Brown RD, Britton JW, Huston J.

Non aneurysmal thunderclap headache with diffuse, multifocal segmental and reversible vasospasm. Cephalalgia 1999; 19: 118-1213.

Lee KY, Sohn YH, Kim SH, Sunwoo IN.

Basilar artery vasospasm in postpartum cerebral angiopathy. Neurology 2000; 54: 2003-2005.

McColl GJ, Fraser K.

Pheochromocytoma and pseudovasculitis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1441-1442.

Razavi M, Bendixen B, Maley JE, Schoaib M, Zargarian M, Razavi B, Adams HP.

CNS pseudovasculitis in a patient with pheochromocytoma. Neurology 1999; 52: 1088-1090.

Serdaru M, Chiras J, Cujas M, Lhermitte F.

Isolated benign cerebral vasculitis or migrainous vasospasm? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1984; 47: 73-76.

6.7.4 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf einen Hypophyseninfarkt

Carral F.

Pituitary apoplexy. Arch Neurol 2001; 58: 1143-1144.

Chakeres DW, Curtin A, Ford G.

Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary and parasellar abnormalities. Radiol Clin North Am 1989; 27: 265-281.

Da Motta LA, de Mello PA, de Lacerda CM, Neto AP, Da Motta LD, Filho MF.

Pituitary apoplexy. Clinical course, endocrine evaluations and treatment analysis. J Neurosurg Sci 1991; 43: 25-36.

Dodick DW, Wijdicks EFM.

Pituitary apoplexy presenting as thunderclap headache. Neurology 1998; 50: 1510-1511.

Hernandez A, Angeles Del Real M, Aguirre M, Vaamonde J, Gudin M, Ibanez R.

Pituitary apoplexy: a transient benign presentation mimicking with subarachnoid hemorrhage with negative angiography. Eur J Neurol 1998; 5: 499-501.

Lee CC, Cho AS, Carter WA.

Emergency department presentation of pituitary apoplexy. Am J Emerg Med 2000; 18: 328-331.

McFadzean RM, Doyle D, Rampling R, Teasdale E, Teasdale G.

Pituitary apoplexy and its effect on vision. Neurosurgery 1991; 29: 669-675.